Influential Muslim women engaged in charity work and patronised good causes. As Islamic law clearly stipulated their rights in terms of income and inheritance, many could do so on the basis of generous funds allocated for their personal use. They played a vital role in consolidating Islamic society by promoting support and solidarity between the various social classes. Many commissioned mosques and other public buildings for posterity. Thus, in Morocco, the Fihri sisters built both the Qarawiyin Mosque
and the Andalusian Mosque
in Fez during the 3rd / 9th century. In Turkey, Nilüfer Hatun, the mother of Murad I, had a religious structure built in Iznik in 789 / 1388, while Sultan Abdülaziz’s mother built the Pertevniyal Mosque
Complex in Istanbul in 1288 / 1871, including a shrine, fountain, school and library.