was led by the palace calligraphers (hattats
) who, with their distinguished place in society, were highly respected by the sultans and allowed to view, read and study the most valuable manuscripts in the palace library. Interest and respect for calligraphy
never waned throughout the centuries, and despite the corruption seen in other branches of the fine and decorative arts, the art of calligraphy
continued to develop and adapt to the taste of different periods.
In the 19th century the Ottoman sultans, preferring a different lifestyle, moved to the Western-style Dolmabahçe and Yıldız Palaces. The end of life in Topkapı Palace saw a change in the sultans’ aesthetic taste and thus the palace workshops came to an end, and the ties between the palace and artistic practice were loosened.