The Sultan and his Court
‘The Mamluk Sultan was supreme champion of Islam, commander-in-chief, statesman and patron of the arts.’
At the helm of the Mamluk institution was the sultan, himself a Mamluk, whose skills had marked him out for leadership among his peers. Every Mamluk sultan, irrespective of his individual ambitions, activities and interests, had certain overriding responsibilities inherent to his office. Most immediately, he was the supreme champion and defender of Sunni (Orthodox) Islam, protector of the Holy Cities and sites within the empire and guardian of the Islamic Caliphate, which thanks to Mamluk intervention was re-established in Cairo in 659 / 1261, after Baghdad had fallen to the Mongols three years earlier.
Key for the Ka'ba

Hegira 765 / AD 1363
Museum of Islamic Art
Cairo, Egypt
The Mamluk sultans donated sacred keys to the Ka'ba in Mecca, the holiest shrine in Islam.