Pilgrimage Routes and Holy Sites along the Way
'Every year Muslim pilgrims converge on Mecca from all corners of the Muslim world.'
The Qur'an says: 'And proclaim to mankind al-Hajj. They will come to you on foot and on every lean mount; they will come from every deep and distant mountain highway. (XXII: 27–8)' Every year Muslim pilgrims converge on Mecca from all corners of the Muslim world. The upkeep of the pilgrimage routes, the rest stations, reservoirs and watchtowers, were the responsibility of the local Muslim governors or rulers.
Astrolabe

Hegira 417 / AD 1026–7
Umayyads of al-Andalus
Royal Museum, National Museums of Scotland
Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
For pilgrims astrolabes were indispensable tools for orientation and navigation.